atatürk ün hayatı ingilizce

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    25 Nisan 2011
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    He was born in 1881 (probably in thespring) in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now in Greece. His father Ali Riza,a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafa was still a boy.His mother Zubeyde, a devout and strong-willed woman, raised him and hissister. First enrolled in a traditional religious school, he soon switched to amodern school. In 1893, he entered a military high school where his mathematicsteacher gave him the second name Kemal (meaning perfection) in recognition ofyoung Mustafa's superior achievement. He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal.

    In 1905, Mustafa Kemal graduated from the War Academy in Istanbul with the rankof Staff Captain. Posted in Damascus, he started with several colleagues, aclandestine society called "Homeland and Freedom" to fight againstthe Sultan's despotism. In 1908 he helped the group of officers who toppled theSultan. Mustafa Kemal's career flourished as he won his heroism in the farcorners of the Ottoman Empire, including Albania and Tripoli. He also brieflyserved as a staff officer in Salonica and Istanbul and as a military attache inSofia.

    In 1915, when Dardanelles campaign was launched, Colonel Mustafa Kemal became anational hero by winning successive victories and finally repelling theinvaders. Promoted to general in 1916, at age 35, he liberated two majorprovinces in eastern Turkey that year. In the next two years, he served ascommander of several Ottoman armies in Palestine, Aleppo, and elsewhere,achieving another major victory by stopping the enemy advance at Aleppo.

    On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in the Black Sea port of Samsun tostart the War of Independence. In defiance of the Sultan's government, herallied a liberation army in Anatolia and convened the Congress of Erzurum andSivas which established the basis for the new national effort under hisleadership. On April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly was inaugurated.Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected to its Presidency.
    Fighting on many fronts, he led his forces to victory against rebels andinvading armies. Following the Turkish triumph at the two major battles atInonu in Western Turkey, the Grand National Assembly conferred on Mustafa KemalPasha the title of Commander-in-Chief with the rank of Marshal. At the end ofAugust 1922, the Turkish armies won their ultimate victory. Within a few weeks,the Turkish mainland was completely liberated, the armistice signed, and therule of the Ottoman dynasty abolished.

    In July 1923, the national government signed the Lausanne Treaty with GreatBritain, France, Greece, Italy, and others. In mid-October, Ankara became the capital ofthe new Turkish State. On October 29, the Republic was proclaimed and MustafaKemal Pasha was unanimously elected President of the Republic.

    Atatürk married Latife Usakligil in early 1923. The marriage ended in divorcein 1925.
    The account of Atatürk's fifteen year Presidency is a saga of dramaticmodernization. With indefatigable determination, he created a new political andlegal system, abolished the Caliphate and made both government and educationsecular, gave equal rights to women, changed the alphabet and the attire, andadvanced the arts and the sciences, agriculture and industry.

    In 1934, when the surname law was adopted, the national parliament gave him thename "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks).

    On November 10, 1938, following an illness of a few months, the nationalliberator and the Father of modern Turkey died. But his legacy to his peopleand to the world endures.

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