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    25 Nisan 2011
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    Biography of İsmet İnönü
    İSMET İNÖNÜ ( 1884 –1973 )
    İsmet İnönü was a famous commander in the war of Independence a successfuldiplomat at the Lausanne Peace Agreement, and Turkey’s first prime minister andsecond president. He is regarded as the ‘second figure,’ after Mustafa KemalAtaturk, among those in the vanguard of the foundation of modern Turkey.
    İsmet İnönü’s father was a magistrate at İzmir Court, Hacı Reşid Bey of Malatyaand hıs mother the lady Cevriye (Temelli) from Bulgaria. He was born in İzmir,but completed his primary
    education in Sivas on account of his father’s work. İnönü was by no means asuccessful student at the Sivas Military
    Middle School, which he entered at an early age. After studying for one year atthe Sivas Civil Service High School, he entered the high school department ofthe Artillery War Academy in Istanbul, graduating with honours. He continuedthis success at the Artillery War Academy, which he entered next. Graduatingfrom there at the head of his
    class he earned the right to join the Advanced Military School, which was thena training school for officers
    .During his student years, İsmet İnönü was as deeply interested in the
    problems facing the country as he was by his courses. He began learning Frenchwhile still in middle school, and
    learned German at the Military Academy, and was easily able to followpublications in both languages concerning military and political matters.SultanAbdülhamid’s increasing constraints and the Ottoman Empire’s foreign policy ledto
    dissatisfaction in the youthful patriot.İnönü’s schoolmates felt the sameconcerns. They would frequently meet to discuss the situation facing thecountry. That led to his receiving a first disciplinary warning, although the
    respect he had gained among his teachers and those close to him prevented himbeing expelled.In 1906 he was posted to the 2nd Army at Edirne as a staffcaptain, and at the end of 1907 secretly joined the Committee for Union andProgress. Following the declaration of the second constitutional monarchy in1908, he became an influential member of the committee in its Edirneheadquarters. In November the same year he was promoted to senior captain. AtYeşilköy he joined the Mobile Army, which suppressed the March 31 incidents in1909, working for a time at headquarters. He then attended the Committee forUnion and Progress congress as 2nd Army delegate.

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    At that congress he shared the views of Mustafa Kemal, who believed that thearmy should remain outside politics, and acted in concert with him. That viewattracted some support, but nevertheless remained a minority one. Following thecongress, İnönü’s links to the committee were severed.
    İsmet İnönü was one whose industriousness, discipline and ability immediatelybrought him to notice. When the then chief of general staff,
    Ahmed İzzet Paşa, was tasked with suppressing the Yemen Revolt in 1910, İnönüwas selected as his adjutant. Promoted to the rank of major in 1912, heremained in Yemen until 1913, when he returned to Istanbul to take up a post atthe War Ministry headquarters
    alongside Enver Paşa. During that attachment he was promoted to the rank oflieutenant-colonel and played an influential role in the renewal of thearmy.Following a request to serve on the front, he was posted to the 2nd Armyas chief of staff in October 1915, and was promoted colonel that same year.
    İsmet İnönü proved himself to be a talented and successful soldier on all thefronts on which he served during World War I. He served as chief of staff ofthe 2nd Army and commander of the XX and III Army Corps, reaching the finalrank of colonel during the war and serving as undersecretary at the WarMinistry. İnönü received 11 awards and medals for his performance in the war,and married a lady called Mevhibe in 1919.During his time as undersecretary atthe War Ministry, İnönü frequently met with Mustafa Kemal Paşa at the latter’shouse in Şişli, where they would discuss how to free the country from enemy

    At Mustafa Kemal’s request he went toAnkara in January 1920 for meetings regarding the establishment of a nationalarmy. He then returned to Istanbul at the request of Fevzi Çakmak Paşa, who hadbeen appointed to the War Ministry. On March 16, 1920, following the occupationof Istanbul by the Allied Powers, Mustafa Kemal ordered İnönü to Ankara. İnönüobeyed at once, and set out dressed as an ordinary private soldier to avoidbeing recognised, arriving in Ankara on April 9, 1920. He entered Parliament,which opened on April 23, 1920, as member for Edirne and represented theGeneral Staff in the newly formed Cabinet. His task was to form and direct thenew national army. During this time, Mustafa Kemal and İsmet İnönü weresentenced to death by the Istanbul government.

    While the national army was still in the process of being established, theGreeks invaded the Aegean region and began moving on central Anatolia. Thewestern front was now the most important and dangerous. İnönü was appointed tocommand the northern sector of that front on November 10, 1920. On January 6,1921, the Greeks attacked

    the Turkish Army on İnönü’s sector between Bursa and Eskişehir. This conflict,known as the First İnönü War, resulted in victory for the Turkish Army,superbly commanded by İnönü. He then put down a revolt led by Çerkez Ethem.OnMarch 1, 1921, the Turkish Parliament decided to promote İnönü tomajor-general, after which, as an officer of general rank, he began to bereferred to as İsmet Paşa. Shortly afterwards, the Greeks regrouped andinitiated a second attack in the area where the First İnönü War had beenfought, on March 23, 1921.Later still, İsmet Paşa assumed important posts inthe Sakarya War, the Ground Offensive and the Chief
    Command Battle of 1921-1922. His success in these campaigns was rewarded byParliament with the Independence Medal.Peace was established with the MudanyaCeasefire Agreement on October 11, 1922, and international meetings began
    on the subject of recognizing Turkish independence. İsmet Paşa was appointedforeign minister by Mustafa Kemal, and was thus able to attend the LausanneConference.
    During the Lausanne Conference İnönü proved to be as talented a diplomat as hewas soldier. Led by İnönü, the Lausanne peace talks again ended in anothervictory for the Turks.
    İsmet Paşa once more participated in the Turkish Parliament’s second term asforeign minister. He was constantly at Mustafa Kemal’s side during thefoundation of the Republic and the preparation of the new Constitution, andexerted a profound influence. Immediately after the declaration of the TurkishRepublic, he was charged with forming the government as prime minister. Duringhis 12 years in that post, he implemented the principles of Kemal Ataturk,re-ordered the Turkish economy and established sound relations with overseasstates. In 1937, he asked to resign the post of prime minister, which was dulyaccepted.


    Following the death of Ataturk in 1938, İnönü was elected Turkish president andechairman of the Republican People’s Party (CHP). During the Second World

    War he scrupulously tried to maintain Turkish neutrality, and was careful toestablish multilateral relations with the powers engaged in the conflict. On

    January 1943 he met with British prime Minister Winston Churchill in Adana, andwith Churchill and U.S. President Roosevelt in Cairo in December that sameyear. He also signed a non-aggression pact with Germany during the war.

    Even during the war İsmet İnönü was thinking about the transition to democracy,making this clear in many of his addresses. His aim was to put an end tosingle-party rule and to move to a multi-party system. Work aimed at bringingthis about commenced after the war. The Democratic Party was set up under thechairmanship of Celal Bayar in

    1946. When that party won the 1950 elections, the CHP entered Parliament as theopposition. As CHP chairman, İnönü assumed the role of leader of theopposition.

    In the 1961 elections following the May 27, 1960, military intervention, heformed three coalition governments as

    chairman of the party with the greatest number of deputies. When the governmenthe had formed lost a vote of confidence in 1965, İnönü returned to

    the post of leader of the opposition. During the Cyprus incidents of 1964 hismove to land troops there was blocked by the United States. Following this heturned to a multilateral view of foreign policy.

    In 1972, İsmet İnönü had disagreements with the party leadership on a number ofissues, and resigned the

    chairmanship after failing to secure sufficient backing at the partyconference. He entered the Senate in

    1971, as a result of a constitutional amendment allowing former presidents todo so.

    His death was the cause of great mourning at home and overseas, and his tomb isnext to that of Ataturk at Anıtkabir.

    :tongue_ani:hadi begen tıklayın lütfen:307:
    mysterious girl bunu beğendi.

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