Modals

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  1. b_d@nc€rtuce

    b_d@nc€rtuce Üye

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    MODALS

    Necessity: gereklilik, zorunluluk
    Must/have to

    • I must pass the university exam. I have no other choice. If I can’ t pass it, I won’ t get a good career and I’ ll be unhappy.
    • I have to pass the university exam. My parents have spent so much Money on me. If not, I’ ll make them unhappy.

    * You musn’ t cross the street when the lights are red.

    Lack of necessity: gereksizlik (gerek yok)

    Don’ t/doesn’ t have to + V1
    Don’ t/doesn’ t need to + V1
    Needn’ t + V1

    • We don’ t need to hurry. We have plenty of time.
    • Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’ t have to go to class.


    Lack of necessity in the past

    Didn’ t have to/didn’ t need to: gerek yoktu, gerek kalmadı

    • I didn’ t have to wait long for friends. They came only ten minutes later.

    Needn’ t have + V3: gerekmediği halde yaptım

    • You needn’ t have washed the dishes by hand. I was going to put them in the dishwasher.

    Advisability: öğüt

    Should/ought to/had better

    Yapmam gerekir/yapsam iyi olur, yapmasam kötü şeyler olabilir

    • You should read a lot of books to improve your English.
    • We had better hurry, or we will miss the bus.
    • I should study for my geography exam, but I don’ t feel like studying tonight. I think, I’ ll study for it tomorrow.
    • I had better study for my exam tonight. If not, I’ ll fail.

    Shouldn’ t/Ought not to: yapılmaması gerekir had better not: yapmasan iyi olur

    Should be doing/Ought to be doing: şu anda………….. yapıyor olmam gerekirdi.

    • Why is he sleeping now? He should be studying for his exam.
    • I’ m watching TV with you now, but in fact, I ought to be studying in my room.

    Should have done/ought to have done: yapmam gerekirdi ama yapmadım

    • I should have set my alarm clock. I over slept and missed the bus.
    • He should have studied harder to pass his exam. He failed.

    Should have been doing/ought to have been doing: yapıyor olmalıydılar

    • While I was going to home yesterday, I saw some chidren. They were playing in the street. They shouldn’ t have been playing there. They should have been playing in the playground.

    Be to/be supposed to= be due to: bir tarifeye göre, programa göre olması gereken olaylar

    Be to= must
    • The film is to start at nine o’ clock.
    • You are supposed to be on time for class. If you are late the teacher gets angry.
    • I’ m to go to work early tomorrow. My boss ordered me to go in early.

    Be supposed to: was/were supposed to
    Was/were supposed to= should have done
    Was/were going to = should have done

    *Bir tarifeye, bir plana göre yapmamız gerekirdi.

    • I was supposed to go to work early yesterday, but I overslept, so my boss got angry with me.

    Ability: yetenek (can, be able to)

    Was/were able to V1: geçmişte zor bir durumun üstesinden gelmek.
    • The maths exam was very difficult yesterday, but I was able to get a high grade.

    Suggestion: tavsiye, öneri (may, might (as well)

    If you don’ t have any other plans, we may invite some friends fort he weekend. Since we can’ t afford to go to the cinema, we might as well hire a video and watch it at home.

    Could (past ability)

    When I was younger, I could run fast.
    (probably means: I used to be able to run fast, but now I can’ t run fast.)

    I want to take my son somewhere tomorrow, but I can’ t think of any where interesting. Got any idea?
    * Well, you could take him to the theatre or cinema, or you could go to a park.

    Could have done: geçmişte bir şeyi yapabilirdin ama yapmadın (Allah’ tan yapmadın)
    • You were driving so fast. You could have had an accident.
    • He could have borrowed some Money from his friends, but he didn’ t.

    couldn’ t have done: isteseydi de yapamazdı
    * I couldn’ t have visited my friend even if I had wanted. Because he was in İzmir.

    Expressing Degrees of Certainty: tahminde bulunma

    He is ill. (% 100)
    He must be ill. (% 95 emin olmak)
    He may/might/could be ill. (% 50 emin olabilir)
    He isn’ t in his room. ( % 100)
    He can’ t/couldn’ t be in his room. (% 99)
    He musn’ t be in his room. (% 95)
    He may/might not be in his room. (% 50 olmayabilir)

    Present progressive form (Modal + be doing)

    Must be doing: yapıyor olmalı
    May/might/could be doing: yapıyor olabilir

    can’ t/couldn’ t be doing: yapıyor olamaz

    musn’ t be doing: yapmıyor olmalı
    may/might not be doing: yapmıyor olabilir.

    • Do you hear some noise from the baby’ s room. Yes, I do! She musn’ t be sleeping.

    • Don’ t make so much noise. Your brother is studying. No, he can’ t be studying. I saw him in the street.


    Past time

    Must have done: -mış olmalı
    May/might have done: -mış olabilir

    can’ t/ couldn’ t have done: -mış olamaz
    must not have done: -mamış olmalı
    May not/might not have done: -mamış olabilir
    • You can’ t have seen him there. He has been in Ankara for two weeks.
    • She couldn’ t pass her exams. She musn’ t have studied hard enough.

    Past progressive

    Must heve been Ving: herhalde yapıyordu
    Might/may/could have been Ving: beklide yapıyordu
    Can’ t have been Ving: yapıyor olması imkansız

    • He can’ t have been driving very fast at the time of the accident. He doesn’ t like speeding.

    Would have done: ederdi veya edecekti

    Preference

    Would rather/woluld sooner V1………than: tercih ederim
    • I woluld rather read something than watch TV.
    • I’ d sooner drink coffee than tea.

    Would rather/would sooner have V3……….than: geçmişte yapmayı tercih ederdim
    • I’ d rather have stayed at home than gone to the cinema last night.

    özne ile eylemi yapacak kişi farklıysa
    Would rather + Özne+ past simple

    • She wants to be a nurse, but I’ d rather she became a teacher.


    ***Would have V3: -ecekti, -acaktı

    Used to/ would
    1 2

    1) geçmişte çok yapıp artık yapmamak ya da seyrek yapmak.

    Used to + eylem/ olgu bildiren fiiller.
    • I used to go to the cinema very often when I was at university.

    2) would + eylem

    I would fly kites in my childhood.

    • I……………..be very shy when I was a child.

    a) would b) used to c) needn’ t d) musn’ t

    Would ve used to aynı sorunun şıklarında beraber bulunuyorsa used to tercih edilir.

    why don’ t you + V1
    Do you prefer + Ving
    Would you like + to V1
    Do you mind if I + herhangi bir tens

    ***Be, know, understand olgu bildiren fiiller ve used to ile kullanılır.
    May I: -e bilir miyim
    Shall I, Shall be: yapalım mı
    Will you: birinden kendiniz için bir iyilik istemek
  2. nazmiye61

    nazmiye61 Üye

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    güzel olmuş paylaşım için sağol
  3. b_d@nc€rtuce

    b_d@nc€rtuce Üye

    Katılım:
    4 Mayıs 2008
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    rica ederim:)

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