Present Continuous Tense

Konu 'İngilizce Ders Notları' bölümünde karamelek tarafından paylaşıldı.

  1. karamelek

    karamelek Özel Üye Özel Üye

    Katılım:
    26 Ekim 2007
    Mesajlar:
    2.692
    Beğenileri:
    458
    Ödül Puanları:
    36

    Present Continuous Tense Türkçe'deki şimdiki zamanın ifadesidir.

    Auxiliary Verbs: am/is/are

    ÖRNEK TABLO
    (+) (-)(?) I am playing I am not playing Am I playing? You are playing You aren't playing Are you playing? He is playing He isn't playing Is he playing? She is playing She isn't playing Is she playing? It is playing It isn't playing Is it playing? We are playing We aren't playing Are we playing? They are playing They aren't playing Are they playing? ​

    USE 1 Now
    (Şimdi)

    Use the Present Continuous with Continuous Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment.

    (Present Continuous Tense bir şeyin tam şu anda olduğunu veya yapıldığını anlatmak için kullanılır.)

    EXAMPLES (ÖRNEKLER)

    You are learning English now. (Şu anda İngilizce öğreniyorsun.)

    You are not sleeping now. (Şimdi uyumuyorsun.)

    I am sitting. (Oturuyorum.)

    I am not standing. (Ayakta durmuyorum.)

    What are you doing? (Ne yapıyorsun?)

    Why aren't you doing your homework? (Niye ödevini yapmıyorsun?)

    USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now
    (Halen devam eden uzun süreli olaylar)

    In English, now can mean "this second," "today," "this month," "this year," "this century" and so on. Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress.

    (İngilizce'de "now" yani "şimdi" şu anlamlara gelir. "tam bu anda", "bu ay", "bu yıl", "bu yüzyıl" vs. Bazen Present Continuous Tense'i uzun süren bir eylemi yapma sürecinde bulunduğumuzu anlatmak için kullanırız.)

    EXAMPLES: (Aşağıdaki bütün örnekler bir lokantada yemek yerken söylenebilir)

    I am studying to become a doctor. (Doktor olmak için çalışıyorum.)

    I am not studying to become an engineer.. (Mühnedis olmak için çalışmıyorum.)

    I am reading a book. (Bir kitap okuyorum.)

    I am not reading any newspapers right now. (Şu anda hiç bir gazete okumuyorum.)

    Are you working on any special projects? (Özel bir proje üzerinde çalışıyor musun?)

    USE 3 Near Future
    (Yakın Gelecek)

    Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.

    (Bazen Present Continuous Tense bir şeyin o anda değil de yakın bir zamanda olacağını veya olmayacağını anlatmak için kullanılır.)

    EXAMPLES:

    I am meeting some friends after work. (İşten sonra arkadaşlarla buluşuyoruz.)

    I am not going to the party tonight. (Bu gece partiye gitmiyorum.)

    Isn't he coming with us tonight. (O bu gece bizimle gelmiyor mu?)

    USE 4 Complaining with "Always"
    ("Always" kullanarak şikayette bulunma)

    The Present Continuous with words such as "always" expresses the idea that something often happens. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present but with negative emotion.

    (Present Continuous Tense "Always" gibi kelimelerle kullanıldığında bir şeyin yapıldığını veya olduğunu belirtir. Anlam Simple Present Tense'e benzer ve her zaman negatiftir. Bir şeyden şikayet ederken kullanılır.).

    EXAMPLES:

    She is always coming to class late. (Derse hep geç kalıyor.)

    He is always talking. (O sürekli konuşur.)

    I don't like them because they are always complaining. (Onları sevmem çünkü hep şikayet ederler.)


    DİKKAT!

    Bazı fiiller Present Continuous Tense ile kullanılmaz. Bu fiiller "state verbs" olarak adlandırılır. Bu fiillerden bazıları aşağıda verilmiştir.

    love - like - hate - understand - have (possession) etc.

    She is loving chocolate. - Yanlış
    She loves chocolate. - Doğru

    I am hating you - Yanlış
    I hate you - Doğru

    She isn't understanding me - Yanlış
    She doesn't understand me - Doğru

    TIME EXPRESSIONS IN PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    Time expressions zaman belirten ifadelerdir ve İngilizce'de her zaman için farklı ifadeler kullanılır. Özellikle sınavlarda cümlenin hangi tense olduğunu anlamak için time expression'ların bilinmesi çok önemlidir.

    now - right now - at the moment - at present
    bornovalı, beqüş, Berkay VARANGEL ve diğer 4 kişi bunu beğendi.
  2. furkan.serin

    furkan.serin Üye

    Katılım:
    24 Şubat 2010
    Mesajlar:
    1
    Beğenileri:
    2
    Ödül Puanları:
    0
    sağol çok teşekkür ederim
    oboba ve Deniz Cansel bunu beğendi.
  3. sementa.38

    sementa.38 Üye

    Katılım:
    17 Kasım 2009
    Mesajlar:
    645
    Beğenileri:
    363
    Ödül Puanları:
    64
    Yer:
    kayseri
    THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

    1. Use of the present continuous:

    The Present Continuous tense is usually used to express continuing, ongoing actions which are taking place at the moment of speaking or writing. [In the examples given below, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.]


    --> Right now I am cooking supper.
    --> At the moment the plane is flying over the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    The Present Continuous tense is often used in conversation.

    --> "What are you doing?"
    --> "I am working on my English assignment."

    Occasionally, the Present Continuous tense is used to refer to a future event.

    --> We are leaving tomorrow.

    The Present Continuous tense is often used to give descriptions:

    --> People are sitting on the café terrace.
    --> The traffic is making a lot of noise.
    --> She's wearing a red dress.

    The Present Continuous tense is often used to express temporary situations:

    --> I'm sleeping in the spare room this week because I'm decorating my bedroom.
    2. Formation of the present continuous:

    The Present Continuous tense of any verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to be, followed by what is generally referred to as the present participle of the verb.

    The present participle of a verb is formed by adding ing to the bare infinitive. For instance, the present participle of the verb to work is working.

    Thus, the Present Continuous tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:



    I am working
    you are working
    he is working
    she is working
    it is working
    we are working
    they are working



    3. Spelling rules for the formation of the present participle:

    Some verbs change their spelling when the ending ing is added to form the present participle.

    a. Verbs ending in a silent e
    When a verb ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to close closing
    to dine dining
    to leave leaving
    to move moving

    However, when a verb ends in an e which is not silent, the final e is not dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to be being
    to see seeing

    b. Verbs ending in ie
    When a verb ends in ie, the ie is changed to y before the ending ing is added. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to die dying
    to lie lying

    When a verb ends in y, no change is made before the ending is added. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to fly flying
    to play playing


    c. One-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
    Except in the case of the final consonants w, x and y, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added. The reason for this is to reflect the fact that the pronunciation of the single vowel does not change when the ending ing is added.

    English vowels have a variety of pronunciations. For instance, each English vowel has two contrasting pronunciations, which are sometimes referred to as short and long. Vowels which are followed by two consonants, and vowels which are followed by a single consonant at the end of a word, are generally pronounced short. In contrast, vowels which are followed by a single consonant followed by another vowel are generally pronounced long.

    In the table below, the underlined vowels in the left-hand column are pronounced short; whereas the underlined vowels in the right-hand column are pronounced long. For example:

    Short Vowels Long Vowels
    fat fate
    tapping taping
    let delete
    win wine
    filling filing
    not note
    hopping hoping
    flutter flute

    Thus, in the case of most one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the vowel is pronounced short. In order to reflect the fact that the vowel is also pronounced short in the corresponding present participle, except in the case of w, x and y, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added.

    In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are
    underlined. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to nod nodding
    to dig digging
    to run running
    to clap clapping
    to set setting

    When a verb ends in w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to draw drawing
    to fix fixing
    to say saying

    It should also be noted that when a verb ends in a single consonant preceded by two vowels, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. The reason for this is that two vowels together are generally pronounced long. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to rain raining
    to read reading
    to meet meeting
    to soak soaking

    d. Verbs of more than one syllable which end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
    When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled to form the present participle only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress.

    For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:



    Infinitive Present Participle
    to expel expelling
    to begin beginning
    to occur occurring
    to omit omitting

    When a verb of more than one syllable ends in w, x or y, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to allow allowing
    to affix affixing
    to convey conveying

    When the last syllable of a verb is not pronounced with the heaviest stress, the final consonant is usually not doubled to form the present participle. For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs do not have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are not doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    to listen listening
    to order ordering
    to focus focusing
    to limit limiting

    If necessary, a dictionary can be consulted to determine which syllable of a verb has the heaviest stress. Many dictionaries use symbols such as apostrophes to indicate which syllables are pronounced with the heaviest stress.



    It should be noted that British and American spelling rules differ for verbs which end in a single l preceded by a single vowel. In British spelling, the l is always doubled before the endings ing and ed
    are added. However, in American spelling, verbs ending with a single l follow the same rule as other verbs; the l is doubled only when the last syllable has the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

    Infinitive Present Participle
    American Spelling British Spelling
    to signal signaling signalling
    to travel traveling travelling

    to compel compelling compelling
    to propel propelling propelling

    From these examples it can be seen that the American and British spellings for verbs ending in a single l differ only when the last syllable does not have the heaviest stress.



    4. Questions and negative statements

    a. Questions
    In the Present Continuous, the verb to be acts as an auxiliary. As is the case with other English tenses, it is the auxiliary which is used to form questions and negative statements.

    To form a question in the Present Continuous tense, the auxiliary is placed before the subject. For example:

    Affirmative Statement Question
    I am working. Am I working?
    You are working. Are you working?
    He is working. Is he working?
    She is working. Is she working?
    It is working. Is it working?
    We are working. Are we working?
    They are working. Are they working?

    b. Negative statements
    To form a negative statement, the word not is added after the auxiliary. For example:

    Affirmative Statement Negative Statement
    I am working. I am not working.
    You are working. You are not working.
    He is working. He is not working.
    She is working. She is not working.
    It is working. It is not working.
    We are working. We are not working.
    They are working. They are not working.


    c. Negative questions
    To form a negative question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject, and the word not is placed after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the auxiliary. Although there is no universally accepted contraction for am not, the expression aren't I? is often used in spoken English. For example:

    Without Contractions With Contractions
    Am I not working? [Aren't I working?] - used in speaking
    Are you not working? Aren't you working?
    Is he not working? Isn't he working?
    Is she not working? Isn't she working?
    Is it not working? Isn't it working?
    Are we not working? Aren't we working?
    Are they not working? Aren't they working?




    5. Comparison of the uses of the simple present and present continuous

    The Simple Present tense may be used for stating general truths, habits, regular events, timetables and procedures or recipes.

    --> Nova Scotia is a Canadian province. (to be)
    --> Geese fly south every winter.

    In contrast, the Present Continuous tense is usually used to refer to ongoing actions happening at the time of speaking or writing. In the following examples, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.

    --> Right now, I am visiting the province of Nova Scotia.
    --> At the moment, a flock of geese is flying overhead.

    Use the present continuous if you consider the action or event to be temporary:
    --> Are you getting on with your parents now? (you had an argument last week)
    --> My brother’s being really nice at the moment (and this is not normal)

    There are some verbs that you don't usually use in the continuous form. Generally speaking they're verbs that describe states and not actions, such as these:
    --> verbs describing thought and opinions: think, believe, remember, know, forget, agree, disagree…
    --> verbs describing emotions: want, like, love, hate, adore, detest…
    --> verbs describing the senses: see, hear, taste, feel, smell…

    This doesn't mean that it's impossible to use these verbs in the continuous. It just means that it's unusual and would probably be very specific in a particular situation.


    buraksurkuç, Berkay VARANGEL ve heysem bunu beğendi.
  4. Berkay VARANGEL

    Berkay VARANGEL Üye

    Katılım:
    24 Kasım 2010
    Mesajlar:
    425
    Beğenileri:
    78
    Ödül Puanları:
    29
    Emeğine sağlık !

Sayfayı Paylaş