Relative Clause (Geniş Anlatım )

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    Relative Clause (geniş anlatım )

    ADJECTIVE / RELATIVE CLAUSES
    Study the table.

    ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

    A person
    A person
    A man
    A car
    The car
    The village who knows English well
    whose English is good
    whom everybody likes
    which / that has two doors
    which / that I use
    where I was born can get a job easily.
    can get a job easily.
    is a good one.
    is not practical.
    belongs to my father.
    is near Milas.

    The use of relative pronouns in adjective clauses:

    In the examples in the table above, you see that the clauses written in bold define the words a person, a man, a car, the car and the village as an adjective. The kinds of clauses are called adjective clauses. An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun who, whom, whose or which / that. When describing a place, the adjective clause begins with where.

    Written, formal English Spoken, everyday informal English
    This is the driver whom I wanted to see.
    This is the driver to whom I gave the purse.
    This is the school to which I go This is the driver that I wanted to see.
    This is the driver that I gave the purse to.
    This is the school that I go to. (1)

    Further examples:

    This is the driver who(m) / that I want to speak to. (object) (2)
    This is the driver who / that ran over my cat. (subject) (3)
    This is the driver to whom I gave the large tip. (indirect object) (formal)
    This is the driver who I gave the large tip to. (indirect object-informal version of the sentence above.) (less formal)
    I know the driver whose son goes to school with your son. (possessive)
    This is the the dog which barks all night. (subject)
    This is the dog which I wish would sleep at night. (object)
    This is the airport from which we will fly. (object of a preposition) (formal)
    This is the airport we’ll fly from. (less formal version of above sentence) (informal)
    This is the hotel in which we’ll stay. (formal)
    This is the hotel we are staying in. (informal)
    This is the restaurant to which we’ll go this evening. (formal)
    This is the restaurant we’ll go to this evening. (informal)
    A chair is a thing on which we sit. (formal)

    The preposition at the end of the sentence is informal. When the preposition is at the end, we can use that instead of whom or which. That is always used informally instead of who in the subject position. (3)

    The use of relative pronouns in adjective clauses

    A chair is a thing which we sit on. (less formal)
    A chair is a thing we sit on. (informal)
    This is the bus whose driver drives likes a maniac. (possessive – less formal)
    This is the bus of which the air conditioning doesn’t work. (possessive – formal)

    Kinds of adjective clauses

    Adjective clauses can be classified according to the function of the relative pronoun in the clause.



    Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as a subject

    In the examples, you see that the adjective clauses begin with who or which. An adjective clause whose subject is who or which has the same meaning as the Turkish verbs which can be made into adjectives by using the Turkish suffix –en or –an such as ‘gelen adam, çalışan çocuk.
    NOTE: Pay attention to the fact that, who stands for the subject for the subject they (referring to the robbers); which represents the subject it (referring to the dog.)
    When the relative pronoun is in the subject position, it can’t be omitted.

    Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as a object

    As you see in the examples, whom and which are the objects of the adjective clauses. An adjective clause whose object is whom or which has the same meaning as the Turkish verbs derived by using the suffix –dık: aldığım mektup, gördüğüm adam.
    Whom is the object form of the relative pronoun who. It is rarely used in speech. In written English it may be considered more correct than who. Whom is often used with a preposition. If whom is used, the preposition comes before it: If who is used, the preposition comes at the end of the sentence.
    NOTE: Pay attention to the fact that who(m) stands for the object him and which represents the object it referring to the letter.
    The relative pronoun can often be ommitted if it is the object of the sentence.

    Adjective clauses beginning with ‘who’ or ‘which’

    Read the newspaper extract, looking at the use of the adjective clauses in bold.

    Boy Bites Dog

    The people who were waiting for the 5 o’clock İzmir bus saw something which they will probably never forget. Suddenly a large dog that had been quitely sleeping on the pavement woke up, started growling for no apparent reason, and began to attack a small boy who was cleaning shoes nearby.
    Everyone thought that the dog must have had rabies. People screamed in horror and one man who was very brave tried to grab the dog by its tail. However, they needn’t have worried. The small shoeshine boy who had once been a shepherd boy was used to fierce dogs. He was more than a match for the animal. The boy bit a piece off the dog’s ear. The dog which was by then covered in blood quickly ran away. The police who promptly came on the scene later found the the dog and shot it. veterinary surgeons carried out tests which confirmed that the dog did not have rabies.

    Adjective clauses beginning with ‘who’ or ‘which’

    Fill in the blanks with an appropriate relative pronoun.
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    My Holiday in Antalya

    Last year I went for a holiday to Antalya …1… is a beautiful resort on Turkey’s Mediterranean coast. In fact, Antalya, …2… is often described as the “Honolulu of Turkey” is one of the most important centres of tourism in the country. Surrounded on three sides by snow-capped mountains, Antalya is situated on the vast fertile plain …3… was known in ancient times by the name of Pamphylia. The city is known to have been founded by Attalos II …4… was one of the Kings of ancient Pergamon.
    The region has been inhabited by people since the Stone Age. The Beldibi and Karain caves, …5… are among the biggest caverns is Turkey, are within a few miles of the city. The Antalya Museum houses many of the prehistoric artifacts …6… have been found in these caves. There is also an interesting ethnographic display of the tents and clothing used by the nomadic Yörük Turks …7… inhabit the mountains in the winter and the plain in the summer.
    You can make many interesting day excursions from Antalya. One of the nicest outings is to the Düden Şelalesi …8… is a spectacular series of waterfalls, situated on the Düden River. There are several charming restaurants …9… are shaded by large plane trees. On our visit we ate pizza at a particularly nice place …10… catered specially for the many German tourists …11… visit the area every summer. I met a man …12… came from Munich. He was a teacher in one of the new technical schools …13… the government had recently opened there. He was very interested in Turkish architecture so the next day I showed him round the Old Quarter of the city …14… contains many splendid 18th and 19th century traditional wooden houses.

    Study the use of who in the subject position in the relative clause in the dialogue.

    Jane from İstanbul

    Roger Isn’t that the girl who went to İstanbul?
    Anne Do you mean Anne? It can’t be!
    Roger Yes, it is, I’m sure! She was the girl who always felt cold in England.
    Anne She was friendly with that man who drank to much you know the one from Paris.
    Roger Oh yes, the man who always wore that red shirt? Yes, I remember.
    Anne I wonder if she has come to see him.

    Fill in the blanks with who or which / that.

    Arian Do you know the story of the boy ……1……shouted “wolf”?
    Bob Yes, the boy ……2……was a bored shepherd?
    Arian He pretended he’d seen a wolf ……3……was a very stupid thing to do.
    Bob Three or four times he shouted to the townsfolk, ……4…… were working nearby.
    Arian That’s right and everytime they ran to the field ……5…… the boy worked in, they found him laughing.
    Bob Not the last time when the wolf really ate all the sheep and no one came to ****.
    Arian It was the wolf ……6…… was the most intelligent.

    Match the following.

    1 The teacher gave a big smile to the pupil
    2 There is a reward for the person
    3 William Shakespeare was an Englishman
    4 I will buy some flowers for my friend
    5 I want to thank the tourist a who wrote a lot of plays.
    b who ****ed me with my English.
    c who is in hospital.
    d who finds the gold ring.
    e who put an apple on her desk.

    Match the clauses to make sentences with the relative clauses

    1 A sheep is an animal
    2 A parrot is a bird
    3 A saw is a tool
    4 A tank is an armoured vehicle
    5 A mosquito is a flying insect
    6 Malaria is a disease a which moves on tracks.
    b which is used for cutting wood.
    c which is spread by mosquitoes.
    d which can be taught to speak.
    e which has a thick, wolly coat.
    f which sucks people’s blood.

    Complete the following sentences, using a relative clauses with information about what the person does.

    1 A gardener is ………………………………………(grow) flowers and vegetables in a garden.
    A gardener is a person who grows flowers and vegetables in a garden.
    2 A football player is ………………………………(play / professional football for a team).
    3 A driver is ………………………………………(drive / a vehicle).
    4 A farmer is ………………………………………(grow / crops and rears animals).
    5 A milkman ………………………………………(go / round houses selling milk).
    6 A postman ………………………………………(****ver / letters).
    7 A student ………………………………………(study / for a degree or diploma).

    Relative clauses beginning with ‘whom’

    Complete B, using an adjective / relative clause formed with whom.

    1 A We all disliked the history teacher.
    B There was a history teacher (whom) we all disliked.

    2 A She would only speak to one person.
    B There was ………………………………………
    3 A We all know she was a great leader.
    B She was ………………………………………
    4 A The country loved and respected this man.
    B He was ………………………………………
    5 A Everyone in my class loves Mustafa.
    B Mustafa is ………………………………………
    6 A In competitions, nobody remembers the loser.
    B In competitions, ………………………………………
    7 A The sun shines on a good person.
    B A good person is ………………………………………
    8 A We thought he played the piano well.
    B He was ………………………………………
    9 A We saw him quite often.
    B He was ………………………………………
    10 A The guard shot the burglar.
    B It was ………………………………………
    11 A The little boy practised reading with his grandmother
    B It was ………………………………………

    Relative clauses as objects of prepositions

    Ask and answer as in the example, using the cues.

    1 see the doctor / I have an appointment for five o’clock
    A Who do you want to see?
    B I want to see the doctor with whom I have an appointment for five o’clock.
    2 visit the house / İsmet İnönü was born.
    A ………………………………………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………………………………………………
    3 talk / the teacher / we did English with her last year.
    A ………………………………………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………………………………………………
    4 repair the chair / I sit on it every day.
    A ………………………………………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………
    5 see the teacher / I borrowed a book from him.
    A ………………………………………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………………………………………………
    6 see the bus / I will travel.
    A ………………………………………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………………………………………………
    7 see the man / I owe him some money.
    A ………………………………………………………………………………
    B ………………………………………………………………………………
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    Study the use of the adjective clauses in the dialogue.

    Meltem and Helen are at a party.

    Meltem Is that the man whose party this is?
    Helen Yes, he’s the one whom I danced with earlier.
    Meltem I heard he’s got four houses, one of which has an indoor swimming pool.
    Helen Yes, and he employs a man who drivers for him and a woman who cooks all his meals.
    Meltem How lucky not to have to do any jobs which he doesn’t like.
    Helen Yes, but he works very hard. It isn’t a life that I would like.

    Complete the blanks in the dialogue with who, that, whom, which or where.
    Dilek and Tim are discussing his unreliable friend

    Dilek Are you working with the man …1… you often mention in your letter?
    Tim I’m working with a man …2… brother is a friend of mine.
    Dilek The friend …3… crashed your car?
    Tim It wasn’t his fault, it was a lorry …4… caused the crash
    Dilek It’s your fault that you lent your car to a person …5… has just passed his driving test.
    Tim You’re right. I should have left my car to a person …6… hasn’t got enough practice in driving.

    Same sentence but different meaning

    Look at the following examples:

    My sister who lives in İzmir has got four children. (defining clause)
    My sister, who lives in İzmir, has got four children (non-defining clause)

    NOTE: You see two sentences formed with the same words above. The meaning of the first sentence is: I’ve got a few sisters; the one who lives in İzmir has got four children. The meaning of the second sentence is: I’ve got only one sister living in İzmir and she has got four children.

    Defining and non – defining relative clauses

    Adjective Clauses can be classified according to the information they give.

    Defining relative clauses

    If the information that the clause gives is essential, we call it a defining relative clause:

    The child who fell out of the window has died.
    = The child fell out of the window, he has died.
    The letter which I received last week is from my son.
    = I got a letter from my son last week.
    The beggar whom the policeman sent away was healthy.
    = The beggar sent the healthy beggar away.

    You see the adjective clauses defining the words the child, the letter and the beggar. If we take out these adjective clauses from the sentences, we fell an obligation to ask any of these questions: Which letter? Which beggar? The answers to ‘which + noun?’ questions are called defining relative clauses. In today’s English, who is generally used instead of whom, but in formal writing whom is preferred.

    Study the use of the defining relative clauses in the examples.

    A The shirt which I was wearing yesterday is in the washing machine.
    B Which shirt is in the washing machine? The white one you wore at the weekend?
    A No! The shirt which I was wearing yesterday.

    A The letter which was posted a month ago arrived today.
    B Pardon! Which letter arrived today? The letter from your son? The letter from the bank?
    A No! The letter which was posted a month ago.

    A The girl who lives next door married an actor.
    B Which girl?
    A The girl who lives next door.
    B Really!

    A The man who I spoke to on the telephone works in this department.
    B Which man?
    A The man I spoke to on the telephone.
    A Which man is English?
    B The man who is wearing the bowler hat and carrying the umbrella is English.

    A Which cat is yours?
    B The fat one which is eating the big fish is mine.

    Non – defining relative clauses

    Adjective clauses which give additional information but not essential are called non-defining clauses:

    Namık Kemal, who wrote Vatan Yahut Silistre, was a great poet.
    Dr Barnard, whom we expect to come to Turkey, lives in South Africa.
    İstanbul, which tourists admire, is a beautiful city.

    In the examples above, you see that each of the words Namık Kemal, Dr Barnard and İstanbul are famous names. For this reason, we can’t say that the adjective clauses have made them more obvious, so if we take out the adjective clauses from the sentences, we don’t feel an obligation to ask any of these questions Which Namık Kemal? Which Dr Barnard? Which İstanbul? These kinds of clauses which give us addittional knowledge are called non-defining clauses. They are seperated using the comma (,) in writing.

    NOTE: That cannot be used as a relative pronoun instead of who, whom or which in non-defining clauses.

    Join the sentences, using who, which or whose to make one of them a non-defining clause.

    1 The Mississippi is the longest river in the world. The Mississippi is in North America.
    The Mississippi, which is the longest river in the world, is in North America.
    2 Florence Nightingale made great improvements to the military hospitals in the Crimea. Florence Nightingale was English.
    3 The book “Şair Evlenmesi” tells us about the old Turkish marriage customs. It was written Şinasi.
    4 I played tennis with Gönül. Gönül is one of my students.
    5 İzmir is a beautiful city. I live in İzmir.
    6 The Sahara is a large desert. The Sahara is in Africa.
    7 Switzerland is a small European country. Switzerland is famous for its cheese and chocolate.
    8 Osman can still read without glasses. Osman is ninety years old.
    9 The warship “Yavuz” should be in a maritime museum. “Yavuz” carried the Turkish flag on the seas for many years.
    10 We will never forget Atatürk founded the Turkish Republic.
    11 Fatih Sultan Mehmet was the emperor of the Ottoman Empire. He captured İstanbul.
    12 The Süleymaniye Mosque is in İstanbul. It was built by Mimar Sinan.
    13 Ankara became the capital city of Turkey in 1923. It housed the First Turkish Assembly.
    14 The Suez Canal joins the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. It was opened in 1861.
    15 Çömlekçi is a village near Bodrum. It is famous for its hand-made carpets.
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    Defining relative clauses

    Combine the sentences in three ways as in the examples. The form of a is more formal than b or c.

    1 She is the girl. I borrowed the book from her.
    a) She’s the girl from whom I borrowed the book.
    b) She’s the girl who I borrowed the book from.
    c) She’s the girl I borrowed the book from.
    2 He is the car dealer. I bought my car from him.
    3 That is the bus. I travelled on it to Erzurum.
    4 This is the insurance company. She worked for it for four years.
    5 This is the building. The First Turkish National Assembly convened in it.
    6 This is the school. My little brother attends it.
    7 This is the well. The cat drowned in it.
    8 This is the song. They play it all the time on the radio.
    9 She is the girl. I once gave her a red rose.
    10 This is the table. I used to do my homework on it.
    11 This is the castle. The Crusaders defended the Aegean from it.
    12 He is the little boy. We gave money to him.
    13 This is the gentleman. I received an invitation from him to stay in England.
    14 This is the hotel. Agahta Christie stayed in it in İstanbul.
    15 These are the keys. I have been looking for them.
    16 Those are the flowers. I paid one dollar for them.

    Answer the questions, using the words in brackets to make sentences with relative clauses.

    1 Which man died? (man, driving, lorry)
    The man whowas driving the lorry died.
    2 Which car will be auctioned for charity? (car, quadraphonic, stereo system)
    The car which has the quadraphonic stereo system will be auctioned for charity.
    3 Which candidate will get the party nomination? (candidate, most votes)
    4 Which bus goes to Erzurum? (reclining seats and television)
    5 Which dog won the prize? (long floppy ears)
    6 What kind of teacher is successful? (teacher, make lessons interesting)
    7 What kind of man is respected? (always honest)
    8 What kinf of car do people want? (reliable and economical)
    9 What kind of man is a cultured man? (has had a good education)
    10 Which house is the Çillers’ house? (house, faces the sea)

    Answer the questions, using a relative clause.

    1 Jane is a student. She won a scholarship to study economics in Germany.
    Who is Jane.
    Jane is the student who won a scholarship to study economics in Germany.
    2 Ali and Ayşe are cousins. They go to the same boarding school.
    Who are Ali and Ayşe.
    3 The Sakarya and the Kızılırmak are rivers. They flow into the Black sea.
    What are the Sakarya and the Kızılırmak?
    4 A typewriter is a machine. It prints letters on paper.
    What is a typewriter?
    5 Nitrogen is a clear, colourless, odourless gas. It forms four fifths of the atmosphere.
    What is nitrogen?
    6 A thermometer is a scientific instrument. It is used for measuring temperature.
    What is a thermometer?
    7 Dr Soysal is a paediatrician. He works in the University Hospital in Bornova.
    Who is Dr Soysal?
    8 John is a ten year old boy. He rescued a toddler from drowning in the river.
    Who is John?
    9 Leather is material made from animal skins. It is used to make shoes, jackets, belts and bags.
    10 What is leather?
    11 Can is a translator. He works in İstanbul for TRT.
    12 Who is Can?

    Complete the sentences with whom, which or where.

    1 He is a man whom nobody likes.
    2 This is the book …………………….. I published first.
    3 This is not the tourist ……………………..we met yesterday.
    4 Can you remember the place ……………………..you saw watermelons for sale?
    5 The trees …………………….. I planted last year are growing quickly.
    6 The driver ……………………..the policeman fined was very angry.
    7 This is the question ……………………..has no answer.
    8 The people ……………………..we meet at the language school are not all Turkish.
    9 The woman …………………….. I talked to was a secretary.
    10 The clock tower ……………………..was damaged in the earthquake will be restored.
    11 Who knows the island ……………………..the pirates buried the treasure?
    12 What do we call a place ……………………..there is nothing growing?
    13 This is the list of quests …………………….. I invited to the party.
    14 The cat ……………………..lives next door had six kittens.
    15 A school is a place ……………………..children go to learn.
    16 That is the child ……………………..the teacher suspended for having green hair.
    17 The river ……………………..is now flooded completely dries up in the summer.

    Complete the sentences with who or which

    1 A man ……………………..has got a lot of money is rich.
    2 This is the cow ……………………..gives 30 kilos of milk a day.
    3 The dog ……………………..bit the child belongs to the butcher.
    4 Have you seen the boy ……………………..broke the window?
    5 The ship ……………………..is in the harbour will leave for Antalya tomorrow.
    6 Is that the book ……………………..won a literary award?
    7 Is a student ……………………..works all the time boring?
    8 The girl ……………………..is speaking to the teacher is my best friend.

    Complete the sentences, using the words in the box to make relative clauses. Some sentences can have a formal and informal version.

    When / why / where / how / what / whose / which

    1 This is the village …………………….. I was born.
    2 Tell me the reason ……………………..you were so late last night.
    3 It’s not my problem …………………….. you do in your private life.
    4 I don’t know …………………….. the bus leaves.
    5 Can you show me the place …………………….. the bus leaves?
    6 I’m going to visit the boy …………………….. leg was broken playing football for the school.
    7 They won’t give a reason …………………….. the exam was postponed for a week.
    8 The old building …………………….. roof was blown off in last week’s storm will be repaired.
    9 I liked the poetry …………………….. you read to me.
    10 This school is the site …………………….. the Temple of Apollo used to stand.

    Answer these questions, using the words in brackets to make sentences with relative clauses.

    1 What is a fisherman? (person / catch / fish)
    A fisherman is a person who catches fish.
    2 What is a tanker? (carry / oil)
    3 What is a monkey? (animal / most like / human beings)
    4 What is a fish? (a cold – blooded animal / live / in water)
    5 What is a goalkeeper? (defend / goals / football team)
    6 What is a telephone? (device / use / transmitting speech over long distances)
    7 What is a photographer? (person / job / take / photographs)
    8 What is a tractor? (vehicle / use / pulling / farm machinery)
    9 What is a submarine? (a ship / travel / under water)
    10 What is a maid? (female domestic servant / **** / in big house or hotel)
    11 What is a washing machine? (a domestic appliance / wash / clothes)
    12 What is a bee? (insect / make honey)
    13 What is a baker? (person / bread, cakes etc.)
    14 A sheep dog is a dog (be / train to guard and herd sheep)
    15 What is a nurse? (person / look after / patients)
    16 What is a cow? (farm animal / keep / for milk)
    17 What is a silkworm? (caterpillar / spin / silk cocoon)
    18 What is a greengrocer? (sell / fruit and vegetables)
    19 What is a problem child? (always / behave / badly)
    20 What is a taxi? (car / hire / for journeys)
    21 What is a cat? (a small furry animal / catch / mice)

    Make relative clauses, using the adjectives in bold. Use who or which.

    1 A careless driver is likely to causea traffic accident.
    A driver who is careless is likely to cause a traffic accident.
    2 I don’t like spicy food.
    I don’t like food which is spicy.
    3 A healthy man has an advantage in life.
    4 A sad film often makes people cry.
    5 Noisy children are very irritating
    6 There was a girl in a see-through blouse at the party.
    7 A hatchback car is convenient.
    8 It is difficult to play footbal in a muddy field.
    9 The stolen car has been found.
    10 Yesterday’s news shocked everybody.
    11 A rich man can buy whatever he wants.
    12 A wooden house will burn easily.

    Join the sentences, using a relative clause.

    1 A girl answered the question. She is called Ayşe.
    The girl who answered the question is called Ayşe.
    2 The driver ran over the dog. He was drunk.
    3 Children are playing in the field. They are gyp***s.
    4 Prisoners escaped from the prison. They have now been recaptured.
    5 The woman is always gossiping. Nobody likes her.
    6 Mert and Emre work hard. They should get high marks in the exam.
    7 A student was arrested by the police. I know him.
    8 A man was trying to climb through the window of the house. I saw him.
    9 Someone is depressed. That person makes other people depressed too.
    10 Some poor people are very happy. I admire them.
    11 The bridge was swept away in the flood. It will have to be rebuilt.
    12 Some people drank cont*****ted water. They got cholera.
    13 The play was written by Şinasi. It is very famous.
    14 Two boys fell off a roof. They are in hospital.

    Relative clauses beginning with ‘whose’

    Look at these examples:

    The man is going to buy a new car. His car was stolen.
    The man whose car was stolen is going to buy a new one.
    The door of the bus is open. It is going to Bodrum.
    The bus whose door is open is going to Bodrum.

    As seen, relative clauses expressing possession are formed with whose.

    Study the use of whose as a relative pronoun in the following dialogue.

    Noisy Neighbours

    Ann Whose car is it in the road?
    Carol The man whose children are always naughty.
    Ann Oh him! The one whose coat is always so dirty.
    Carol Yes that’s him, it’s a shame, he is the one I told you about the one whose wife left him.
    Ann Of course it’s a pity, but whose windows will they break next?
    Carol He’s certainly a man whose conscience doesn’t bother him.

    Complete B, using a relative clause formed with whose.

    1 A His wife is an opera singer.
    B He’s the man whose wife is an opera singer.
    2 A Her children came top of their class.
    B She’s ………………………………………
    3 A Her car was parked in the road.
    B She’s ………………………………………
    4 A His mistake caused the crash.
    B He’s ………………………………………
    5 A The Portuguese fleet discovered America.
    B It was ………………………………………
    6 A Her leg is broken.
    B She’s ………………………………………
    7 A His son looks after the old woman next door to me.
    B He is ………………………………………
    8 A She always gives her money to the poor.
    B She’s ………………………………………
    9 A His father wants to give me a job.
    B He is ………………………………………
    10 A Her mother is the best cook in İzmir.
    B She is ………………………………………
    11 A His life story is in the newspaper.
    B He is ………………………………………
    12 A His horse always wins every race.
    B He is ………………………………………
    13 A Her handwriting is very bad.
    B She is ………………………………………
    14 A We like his cooking best.
    B He’s ………………………………………
    15 A I want to meet his mother
    B He’s ………………………………………
    16 A The burglars broke into her house.
    B She’s ………………………………………
    17 A It was your cat I fed yesterday.
    B You’re the lady ………………………………………
    18 A The government want to tax his profits.
    B He’s ………………………………………
    19 A I borrowed her coat when it was raining.
    B There’s the woman ………………………………………
    20 A I want to buy his boat.
    B He’s ………………………………………
    21 A It was your daughter that I used to teach last year.
    B You’re ………………………………………
    22 A The police arrested her son.
    B There’s ………………………………………
    23 A I ate your apple.
    B You’re the man …………………………………
    24 A It was his arm that was injured.
    B You’re the man ………………………………………
    25 A Am I sitting in your seat?
    B Are you ………………………………………
    26 A I’ve just bought his house.
    B That’s ………………………………………
  5. sumeyra

    sumeyra Üye

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    Make relative clauses with whose, using the words in brackets.

    1 His job is to buy and sell flowers. (a florist)
    A florist is a person whose job is to buy and sell flowers.
    2 Her job is to serve food in a restaurant. (a waitress)
    3 His job is to repair machinery. (a mechanic)
    4 Her job is to take care of patients, the old, etc. (a nurse)
    5 His job is to grow vegetables and flowers in the table. (a gardener)
    6 His job is to fly planes. (a pilot)
    7 Her job is to design buildings. (an architect)
    8 His job is to cut people’s hair. (a barber)
    9 His job is to change money in a bank. (a clerk)
    10 Her job is to make films. (an actress)

    Combine these sentences, using who, whose or which / that.

    1 A fireman is a person. He puts fires out.
    A fireman is a person who puts fires out.
    2 A driver is a person. He drives a vehicle.
    3 The Kızılırmak is a river. It flows in to the Black Sea.
    4 A donkey is a domestic animal. It has long ears.
    5 What do you call a boy? His father is a king.
    6 A doctor is a person. He / she treats patients.
    7 Sunflower is a plant. Its seeds are used to obtain oil.
    8 A nurse is a person. His / her job is to take care of patients or the old.
    9 A lorry is a vehicle. It can carry goods.
    10 Petrol is a product. It is obtained from petroleum.
    11 An island is a piece of land. It is surrounded by sea.
    12 A refrigerator is a container. We use it to keep our food fresh.
    13 The students will retake the exam in September. Their marks are poor.
    14 A person can’t hear well. He can’t be a musician.
    15 A television is a piece of equipment. It is very important in today’s life.
    16 My classmate is very happy. His parents have just returned from Germany.
    17 Do you know that man? He left this message for me.
    18 The houses are very expensive. They are on the main street.
    19 The government will **** the people. Their houses were destroyed during the earthquake.
    20 The clock tower is being restored. It was built in 1902 by Salih Paşa.

    Punctuating relative clauses

    Put commas where necessary. Remember that only non-defining clauses are marked with two commas.

    1 The teacher who gives English lessons on TV has lived in England.
    The teacher, who gives English lessons on TV, has lived in England.
    2 Ankara which is the capital of Turkey has a population of about three million.
    3 A dog which is on the loose in the streets may cause a traffic accident.
    4 Lake Van which is in the east of Turkey is the country’s largest lake.
    5 Ir** which borders Turkey on the Southeast was once part of the Ottoman Empire.
    6 Hazelnuts for which Turkey is famous are an important product in Turkey’s export.
    7 Columbus who discovered America in 1492 was Portuguese.
    8 Robinson Crusoe who lived for many years on a desert island had a companion who was called Man Friday.
    9 The Suez Canal which was opened in 1861 made trade between Europe and Asia much easiler.
    10 Mr Salman who has studied in America speaks English fluently.
    11 A man who has no money has a problem.
    12 I want to return to the village where I was born.
    13 The crashed car which is now being rebuilt will be sold.
    14 Cities which have large populations have many environmental problems.
    15 Erdal and Erol are twins who are studying English.
    16 Fatih Sultan Mehmet who when only fourteen years old became the ruler of the Ottoman Empire.

    Revision test on relative clauses

    Combine these sentences, changing one into a relative clause.

    1 That man is not poor. His clothes are in rags.
    That man whose clothes are in rags is not poor.
    2 A man is lucky. He has a happy home.
    3 That garden belongs to the local authority. It is full of weeds.
    4 A person may decide to be a nurse. He / she likes looking after other people.
    5 A city has been well-planned. Residents find it easy to live in.
    6 Houses get a lot of sun. Houses face South.
    7 That girl is very rich. She has diamond rings on all her fingers.
    8 People shouldn’t judge others. They make the same mistakes.
    9 The house was new. It had a red door.
    10 That woman is on her own. She is my sister.

    Complete the sentences, using the words in the questions to make noun and adjective clauses.

    1 Where is the man who taught us teaching now?
    I want to know where the man who taught us is teaching now.
    2 What is the man who is wearing the dark blue suit doing?
    Do you know …………………………………?
    3 Where is the man whose car is in the garage going next week?
    Please tell me …………………………………?
    4 What else can you tell me about Ephesus which was a very famous citry in the Hellenistic and Roman periods?
    He asked me …………………………………
    5 What is the secretary who has spent the last hour on the telephone talking about?
    I wonder …………………………………
    6 What had caused the wife, who stabbed her husband with a carving knife, to get so upset?
    Do you know …………………………………?
    7 How much money did Imelda Marcos who was the wife of the President of the Philippines spend on shoes?
    He wonders …………………………………
    8 Where have you put the book which your father gave you for your birhtday?
    Your mother wants to know ………………………………… .
    9 How long ago did she start knitting the jumper which she is still knitting?
    Can you tell me …………………………………?
    10 Where has the boy gone who ****ed us mend the puncture?
    They wondered …………………………………

    Make a complex sentence, changing one of the sentences into a relative clause. Use who, whom, whose, which or when.

    1 The sailor swam to shore. His boat sank.
    The sailor whose boat sank swam to shore.
    2 The man informed the police. He witnessed the burglary.
    3 A girl may have many problems. She trusts everybody.
    4 The woman surprised everyone by speaking. She had been dumb since the accident.
    5 The many is very upset. His money has been stolen.
    6 The baby is crying. Its mother has gone out.
    7 The builders were digging the foundations for an apartment block. They found the remains of a Greek Temple.
    8 Everyone must pay tax. They earn money.
    9 The painting was sold for a considerable fortune. It was painted by Picasso.
    10 The doctor’s name is Christian Barnard. He performed the first heart transplant operation.
    11 He is a student. He shows great promise.
    12 The car was illegally parked. It was towed away.
    13 This is the address. You wanted it.
    14 I congratulated my students. They all passed the exam.
    15 Alsatians are dogs. They look live wolves.
    16 He has a disease. ıt is incurable.
    17 A patriot is a person. He loves his country.
    18 I can’t sleep in a place. There is a lot of noise.
    19 How can you trust a man? He always tells lies.
    20 Turkey is a republic. It is between Europe and Asia.
    21 Machines can do the work of many men. They are installed in modern factories.
    22 Atatürk was a great leader. All nations respected him.
    23 Land without water is a desert. Nothing grows there.
    24 Inflation is a great problem for Turkey. There are many causes of inflation.
    25 You came at a time. We needed your ****.
    26 A mosque is a sacred building. Muslims pray in a mosque.
    27 A chemist’s is a shop. It sells medicines.
    28 A florist is a person. A florist arranges and sells flowers.

    Combine the sentences, changing one of them into a relative clause. Use where, when, which, who, whose, whom or why.

    1 That is Kemal. He owns the new night club.
    That is Kemal who owns the new night club.
    2 I don’t see the girl. I met her at the seminar.
    3 Is that the student? His father is a famous actor.
    4 Here is a suitable place. We can have a picnic here.
    5 This is not the house. Erden wants to buy a house.
    6 Sunday is a day of the week. Children don’t go to school then.
    7 Have you found out the reason? He was punished.
    8 The house will be restored and made into a museum. İsmet İnönü was born there.
    9 November is a month of the year. There is usually a lot of rain.
    10 Please tell me the reason. You are late.
    11 We arrived at the theatre. The play was just starting.
    12 Have you ever asked yourself the question? You are always in trouble.
    13 This is a safe beach. We can swim here.
    14 You must find out the reason. Your back is hurting.
    15 He always visits us at lunch time. There is food on the table.

    Answer the questions in an affirmative way, using where-relative clauses.

    1 Does Jane work in that shop?
    Yes, that is the shop where Jane works.
    2 Do you sleep in that room?
    3 Did you grow up in that village?
    4 Did your brother study at this university?
    5 Are you going to Florida for your holiday?
    6 Are the prisoners being held in that jail?
    7 Did we eat in that restaurant the other night?
    8 Does your father stay in that hotel when he comes here?
    9 Was the ghost seen is this room?
    10 Did the first Turkish Grand National Assembly convene in that building?
    11 Have you taught in this school for your entire working life?

    Rewrite the following formal sentences, making them informal.

    1 The incident to which you are referring is unimportant.
    The incident you are referring to is unimportant.
    2 The hotel in which we are staying is very clean.
    3 Did he own the camera with which he was taking the photograph?
    4 Is the lady for whom you want to buy the diamonds your wife?
    5 The plane in which he flew to Antalya was his own.
    6 The woman to whom he gave the money is very poor.
    7 That is the box in which there is a live snake.
    8 That pen with which you are writing is mine, isn’t it?
    9 A city bus is a vehicle into which hundreds of people are crowded in the rush hour.
    10 The table at which we are eating belonged to my great grandfather.
    11 A person to whom you tell a lie is unlikelyto believe you again.
    12 The house in which we live is not big enough.
    13 The house to which we will move is a larger one.
    14 The street in which you live is very pleasant.
    15 The man from whom I borrowed the money is my uncle.
    Combine the sentences below into one sentence, using relative clauses.

    1 Mustafa Kemal was a famous General. He commanded the Turkish forces. He defeated the Greek Army on the ninth of September, 1922.
    Mustafa Kemal was a famous General who commanded the Turkish forces which defeated the Greek Army on the ninth of September, 1922.
    2 America is a large continent. It is divided into two parts. They are very different in character.
    3 Edison was a great inventor. He invented the electric light bulb. It has revolutionised our lives.
    4 People are dependent on animals. Our best friend is the dog. Animals **** us in many different ways.
    5 A dentist is a highly-skilled professional. He / she looks after our teeth. Our teeth always deserve the best or care.
    6 Our sitting room is a pleasant room. It is furnished with comfortable sofas and armchairs. We relax and watch television in it.
    7 Everyone nowadays wants to own a washing machine. It is a great labour-saving device. It washes clothes very efficiently.
    8 An earthquake is a natural disaster. It is caused by a sudden movement of the earth’s surface. It can sometimes cause many deaths.
    9 Universities are establishments of higher education. They are usually funded by the government. Much important research is done in them.
    10 A teacher must like working with children. Those children come from many different backgrounds. He or she wants to be successful in the profession.
    11 A student is a person. He or she is not necessarily young. He or she is studying a subject of interest to him/her.
    12 The 1992 Olympic Games were held in Barcelona. It is an important Spanish city. It is famous for the architecture.
    13 The terrorism has at last ended. It caused death and destruction in Northern Ireland for many years. Northern Ireland is a part of the UK:
    14 Archeologists heve been searching for the remains of Noah’s Ark. Noah’s Ark is said to have come to rest on the top of Mount Ararat. Mount Ararat is the highest mountain in Turkey.
    15 Ali is very good at basketball. He plays for the Tekel team. The team has won every match so far this season.
    16 İzmir is an important port. It is the third largest city in Turkey. It is situated on the Aegean Sea.
    17 English is the official language in Australia. English is the most widely spoken language in the world. Australia was once a penal colony of England.
    18 The demand for high-tech surgery is increasing beyond the means of supply. High–tech surgery includes kidney transplant and hearth by-pass operations. These operations can dramatically improve the quality of life for patients.
    19 Sibel is going to do a Master’s Degree in the States. She graduated from Gazi University. Gazi University is one of the oldest universities in Turkey.
    20 A burglar stole the Öztürks’ video. He broke in through the kitchen window. The video was new.
  6. sumeyra

    sumeyra Üye

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    Make adjective clauses, using who, which or whose.

    1 NATO international organisation / aim / to be to protect / the member nations / against enemy attack
    NATO is an international organisation whose aim is to protect the member nations against enemy attack.
    2 A lemon / a fruit / rich in vitamin C
    3 An elephant / animal / have got / a long trunk
    4 A hook / a thing / fisherman / use / for catching fish
    5 A pilot / a person / fly / a plane
    6 An air hostess / a woman / look after / passengers in an aircraft
    7 A doctor / a person / job / to be / treat patients
    8 Hawaii / country / beaches / to be / beautiful
    9 An iron / a machine / we / use / to remove creases from clothes
    10 A laboratory / a room / students / do / experiments in
    11 A person / speak / a foreign language / can get a job more easily
    12 A person / headache / should take aspirin

    Make questions and answers, using the words given to produce adjective clauses.

    1 book / buy The teacher recommended to me.
    A. Which book did you buy?
    B. I bought the book that the teacher recommended to me.
    2 car / sell I bought five years ago.
    3 hotel / stay You suggested.
    4 hat / wear My father gave me for my birthday.
    5 poem / read Namık Kemal wrote about freedom.
    6 exercise / do The teacher told us to do.
    7 meal / eat My mother cooked.
    8 pen / break You lend me last week.
    9 radio / drop My uncle brought me from Germany.

    READING SELECTIONS

    Fill in the blanks with the suitable relative pronouns who, whose or which.

    Smyrna

    Mount Pagus, the hill …1… dominates modern İzmir, was the site chosen for a city by Nemesis, …2… was the Goddess of Vengeance. This was revealed to Alexander the Great in a dream. However, it was not Alexander …3… resettled the Symrnaeans. (Smyrna is the name …4… İzmir was then known by.) The Smyrnaeans, …5… were then living at Bayraklı were resettled by Lysimachos. Lysimachos, …6… fame was widespread by his conquest of Ephesus, was one of Alexander’s commanders. The Kadifekale, the name for the fortification …7… now crowns Mount Pagus is the last in the long line of previous fortifications of this site. Greeks, Romans, Byzantine, and Ottomans have all left their mark on the olace …8… history reaches far back in time.

    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 Who was Nemesis?
    2 Who did she reveal her plans to?
    3 How did she reveal her plans?
    4 Who resettled the Smyrnaeans?
    5 What is the name of the fortification now on top of Mount Pagus?

    Fill in the blanks with the suitable relative pronouns who or which.

    Mimar Sinan

    The famous architect, Sinan, …1… was born in Kayseri during the 16th century, constructed many mosques, caravanserai, and fountains, nearly all of …2… still stand today. The best examples of Sinan’s work can be seen in İstanbul and Edirne, …3… once was the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Sinan invented the squinch …4… is a specially cut stone …5… enabled a round dome to be built on top of a square building.

    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 What was Sinan’s profession?
    2 Where was he born?
    3 When was he born?
    4 What did he invent?
    5 Which city was once the capital of the Ottoman Empire?

    Fill in the blanks with the suitable relative pronouns which or whose.

    Turkey

    Turkey, …1… is organised into 76 provinces, is a secular republic …2… has an elected parliament. The nation is about the size of Britain and France combined and has a population of 60,000,000. This large country, …3… neighbours are Bulgaria, Greece; the Soviet Union; Iran; Ir**, and Syria, is a member of NATO. The Turkish Army …4… soldiers number more than 800,000 is the second largest force in NATO. Turkey, …5… is still predominantly an agricultural country, produces wheat, cotton, tea, tobacco, hazelnuts, fruit, and vegetables, all of …6… are very high quality.
    Industrial exports include textiles (of …7… Turkey is a leading producer), steel, chromium, bauxite and manganese.


    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 What is the population of Turkey?
    2 Which agricultural crops does it produce?
    3 Which organisation is Turkey a member of?
    4 Who do you think has the largest army in NATO? (in your own words)
    5 What kinf of government does Turkey have?

    Fill in the blanks with which, whose, who or where.

    Gecekondu

    The “gecekondu” …1… has mushroomed around major Turkish cities like İzmir, İstanbul and Adana is a considerable social problem for the turkish government. The people …2… live in this quickly constructed slum housing have usually migrated from the country. Living conditions in such sub-standard housing is far from pleasant so why do people continue to flow into the cities? The villages from …3… these people have come seem, to an outside observer, like paradise by comparison. Yet most immigrants to the cities feel that their prospects are now better than they where in their village. These people usually …4… have got at least a few children, and most of …5… come to the city for the purpose of getting a better future for their family members, will, they think, have a better opportunity of education and social life in their new settlement and so will have a real chance of improving their situation.

    Answer these questions from the passage.
    1 What is a “gecekondu”?
    2 Where do the people who live in “gecekondu” cone from?
    3 Why do they leave their villages?
    4 Which major Turkish cities have a “gecekondu” problem?
    5 Do you think life is ea***r in a city or in a village? (in your own words)

    Fill in the blanks with which or where.

    Van
    Van, …1… was once situated below the southern cliffs on the lake shore, is now some four miles inland. Perhaps this is not surprising for this is a harsh land …2… one is at the mercy of the forces of natura. The lake, …3… is Turkey’s largest lake, has been known for several hundred years to be rising. In the winter, fierce storms can suddenly occur and engulf entire villages like Arsis and Kale. This is also a region …4… violent earthquakes take place, such as the earthquake of 1976 …5… killed 4,000 people in the Muradiye district to the north. Van is famous for its cats …6… have long white fur, very short lags and one blue and one yellow eye. Van cats can also swim.

    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 Where was Van previously situated?
    2 Where is Van now situated?
    3 Which villages have been engulfed?
    4 Where was there earthquake of 1976?
    5 What do Van cats look like?

    Fill in the blanks with who or which.

    Imports and Exports

    The Turkish customs officials ……1…… are on duty at airports are usually friendly to foreign tourists and rarely look through luggage. The permitted import allowance, ……2…… is clearly displayed at points of entry, is 2.5 litres of alcohol, 400 cigarettes, 50 cigars and 1.5 of coffee or tea. Imports ……3……are forbidden include weapons, ammunition and also controlled. The tourist would be well advised to pay attention to the strict rules concerning the export of antiques …4… carry severe penalties unless previous authorisation has been granted.



    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 Do Turkish customs officials often check tourists’ luggage?
    2 What must you not bring into the country?
    3 What must you not take out of the country?
    4 What must you do if you want to export antiquities?
    5 What happens if you try to do this illegally?

    Fill in the blanks with who, which, when or whose.

    The Ildız Carpet Farm

    The Ildız Carpet Farm, …1… is near Bodrum , is undoubtedly the most unusual carpet shop in the whole world. The farm, …2… was set up by Ildız, …3…is a producer and exporter of carpets, is the world’s only carpet farm. At the farm experts wash and dry tens of thousands of handmade wool carpets …4… have been manufactured or bought by the Ildız company. The best time to visit the farm is in early summer ……5…… the carpets are spread out on the ground like a huge colourful mosaic. All carpets fade in the sun but the carpets……6…… colours have faded most sell for lower prices.

    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 What is the Ildız Carpets Farm?
    2 Who is Ildız?
    3 What kind of carpets are washed and dried at the Ildız Carpet Farm?
    4 Which carpets are cheaper?
    5 When is the best time of year to visit the farm?
  7. sumeyra

    sumeyra Üye

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    Fill in the blanks with where, which, who or whose.

    Turtles or Tourists?

    Dalyan’s İztuzu Beach …1… caretta caretta, the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (………2……… is now on the list of endangered species) comes to lay its eggs was recently the scene of a fierce environmental battle. The beach, …3… unrivalled setting also makes it a number one attraction for tourists, has huge potential for property developers and a foreign company made plans to build a 3,000 bed hotel there. The scheme shocked nature lovers ………4………quickly made an official protest. Conservationists and environmentalists from all over the world flocked to Dalyan to argue that the noise and bright lights of a large hotel would confuse the newly hatched turtles ………5……… might get lost and head inland instead of making their way to the safety of the sea. The building of the hotel, ………6……… would have provided many new jobs for the area, was stopped by the authorities. İztuzu Beach has been left in peace for the turtles – for now.

    Answer these questions from the passage.

    1 Where does the Loggerhead Sea Turtle lay its eggs?
    2 What did a foreign company plan for İztuzu Beach?
    3 What did nature lovers do?
    4 What did the authorities decide?
    5 Do you think they made the right decision? (in your own words)

    Complete the blanks in the passage with which, that, where, who or whose to make adjective clauses.

    The Achievements of Atatürk

    The Arabic script was replaced with the Latin alphabet in 1928.
    It is impossible to overestimate the importance of Atatürk. Most Turks greatly respect him. To the historian, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was a military leader ………1………created a nation out of a decaying empire and launched it on the path to a modern European state. Atatürk ………2……… principles are still valid today, built modern Turkey on a very solid base, but he was not satisfied to rule an undeveloped nation. He intended to move Turkey from the Middle Ages to the 20th century and towards Europe.
    Atatürk intended to change many aspects of Turkish life. He instigated changes ……3…… began at a political level but ………4………soon influenced the economic changes. These in turn created ripples in the social structure of Turkish life. Not only was it the scale of the reforms but the speed at ………5……… they were made ………6……… proved so remarkable.
    The reforms were difficult but necessary. Not only were institutions changed, but an ideal was created, a new patriotism, a new self-respect among Turks. Some of the reforms, included the alphabet, laws, secular law, women’s vote, etc. Through words and actions Atatürk became a myth. Very few leaders have had such a huge impact in a short time. Today it is Atatürk’s legacy ……7…… continues to influence the cohesion of the country, to give direction and force. Symbolic of his continuing role in the life of Turkey, the nation’s leaders formally speak to Atatürk by expressing their thoughts and feelings in writing, in the ceremonial book, at state ceremonies at the mausoleum ……8…… he rests in Ankara. They address him as one would a venerated, and much respected living father.
    Atatürk’s greatest gift to Turkish people ……9…… owe him a debt ……10…… they can’t repay was to give Turkish people pride in their race, a sense of identity, and the cohesion necessary to maintain a national identity, for this reason Atatürk remains Turkey’s favourite son.

    Reducing active adjective clauses to –ing clauses

    Study tables.

    ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
    All the workers who work here are Turks. (present) (1)
    All the workers who are working here are Turks.
    All the workers working here are Turks.


    ADJECTİVE CLAUSE
    who was watering
    The girl who watered the flowers was Alison (past) (2)
    who had watered
    The girl watering

    As seen in the examples above, when the verb of an adjective clause is active (1) in the present or past tense (2), it can be reduced to an –ing clause. If the verb is see, like, love or hear (verbs of perception), we can’t reduce the adjective clause.
    NOTE: The adjective clauses formed with whose or of which can’t be reduced.

    Rewrite the following sentences, changing the adjective clauses into –ing clauses.

    1 A man who sells tickets on a bus must be a conductor.
    A man selling tickets on a bus must be a conductor.
    2 The people who have been waiting here are workers.
    3 A student who takes notes during the lesson is a good one.
    4 The children who are playing in the school garden may not be students.
    5 A dog which wanders in the street may be dangerous.
    6 The woman who was looking after the baby was its grandmother.
    7 The people who attended the practical art course were pleased.
    8 A woman who sews dresses for others is a dressmaker.
    9 A woman who has a lot of work to do won’t have spare time to enjoy herself.
    10 A person who behaves in a friendly way may not be a good person.
    11 I am looking at the girl who is standing at the door.
    12 I don’t like a student who is making a noise.
    13 You can see a man who is watering the flowers.
    14 A person who wants to be a doctor must study medicine.
    15 The man who is shouting in the street is drunk.
    16 The girl who is singing a song may come on stage again.
    17 A person who works for others is an employee.
    18 The doctor who performed the first heart transplant operation was Dr Barnard.
    19 A man who asks everybody for money is a beggar.
    20 The woman who is coming to us is a nurse.
    21 I think the baby who is crying in the bedroom is hungry.
    22 A man who is suffering from a headache may take a painkiller.
    Rewrite these sentences, changing the adjective clauses into –ing clauses as in the example.

    1 People who have alot of money or property are called rich.
    People having a lot of money or proper
  8. Mardi

    Mardi Üye

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    Allah razı olsun bacım, çok işime yaradı:)
  9. sumeyra

    sumeyra Üye

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    Bacım? :D

    Rica ederim arkadaşım ;)
  10. sementa.38

    sementa.38 Üye

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    17 Kasım 2009
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    kayseri
    sümeyra döktürmüş yine:)
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