Life on a submarine may, to many people, sound fascinating. However, it is, in fact, horribly boring. Except for the commanding officers, a day aboard a submarine consists of six hours on duty, six hours off, day after day, for months. This being the case, every effort is made to ensure that the lives of the men are as pleasant as possible. The meals are exceptionally good, and there is a daily film, shown at a specific time, on television around the submarine. In return, the crew is always expected to perform perfectly all the time. A mistake is quite unforgivable. In fact, a favourite saying is "There's room for everything on a submarine except for a mistake". 1. We learn from the passage that, contrary to what a lot of people expect, ....... . A) life on a submarine is extremely rewarding for the crew B) submarines have every imaginable facility for entertaining the crew C) boredom is a major problem for the crew of a submarine D) there is comparatively little work to be done on a submarine E) the officers on a submarine share the same duties as the other members of the crew 2. The writer of the passage emphasises that, on a submarine, ........ . A) there is every opportunity for officers to have a pleasant life B) every member of the crew ****s to prepare the meals C) everyone works six hours a day D) life never gets boring for the crew E) everything is to be done faultlessly 3. It is clear from the passage that it is almost impossible ....... . A) to make life aboard a submarine fully fascinating B) for officers to establish a friendship with other members of the crew C) for everyone to be aware of night and day D) for the commanding officers to make a mistake E) for any member of the crew to be on duty more than six hours Some 130 million years ago, a spike-backed dinosaur walked heavily through the wilderness of what came to be Australia, and left its footprints as a gift for the future. They were the world's best impressions of a dinosaur's two-ton footfalls. When they were found seven years ago in a remote valley in northern Australia, they provided scientists with the first clear evidence that dinosaurs had lived in Australia. This discovery provided further evidence for the theory that Australia was once joined to a vast super-continent that included what is now South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. 4. It is clear from the passage that, millions of years ago, Australia ..... . A) was undoubtedly the only suitable place in the world for the survival of dinosaurs B) was almost certainly not, as it is today, a separate continent C) was, for the first time, inhabited by a large variety of dinosaurs D) was for the most part a wilderness where no living being could survive E) with its geography and climate resembled South America and Africa 5. The passage makes it clear that the dinosaur footprints discovered in Australia in recent years ........ . A) are the same as those also found in South America, Africa, India and Antarctica B) have little attracted many a scientist interested in the distant past of the continent C) could only have been made by dinosaurs weighing a lot more than two tons D) are in surprisingly good condition although millions of years have passed since they were made E) have made scientists revise the most recent theories concerning dinosaurs 6. One reason why the discovery in Australia of the dinosaur footprints is so important is that ....... . A) previously, no one knew for certain whether this country had ever been inhabited by dinosaurs B) contrary to the popular view, this continent had always been a vast wilderness C) until this discovery, nothing was known about the early climate of this continent D) presumably, they will provide clues for future geological changes in this continent E) up to this point, no one knew for sure that dinosaurs could weigh two tons The origins of biography are to be found in early legendary accounts of the Greek, Germanic and Celtic heroes. Another early type of biography is the records of the teachings and deeds of wise men. The accounts of the life and teaching of Socrates given by Plato and Xenophon may be regarded as a development of this kind of record. The interest of the Socratic dialogues of Plato is philosophic rather than biographical, but the Memorabilia of Xenophon, though not a biography in the modern sense of the word, comprises a series of sketches of the great philosopher with intimacy and vividness. The first European author, remembered primarily as a biographer, is Plutarch, a Greek philosopher who lived under the Roman Empire. His Parallel Lives on ancient Greek and Roman statesmen and soldiers is one of the most fascinating works of antiquity and influential in the European biographical tradition. Moreover, he seems to have been the first author to distinguish sharply between biography and history. 7. It is pointed out in the passage that the first true example of biography in the modern sense is to be found in ....... . A) the stories of Greek and other heroes B) Xenophon's Memorabilia C) ancient legends D) Plato's dialogues E) Plutarch's Parallel Lives 8. According to the passage, Plato's account of Socrates, unlike the one given by Xenophon, ....... . A) is very critical of the great philosopher B) puts the emphasis on the philosophy of Socrates C) is full of fascinating details about the life of Socrates D) was the model for Plutarch when he wrote his Parallel Lives E) is commonly regarded as the first important example of biographical writing 9. We understand from the passage that, in his Parallel Lives, Plutarch ......... . A) is primarily concerned with the portrayal of people themselves, but not the events of their times B) concentrates on life and society in ancient Rome C) gives priority to statesmen rather than to soldiers D) includes his own philosophy of life in his accounts of the lives of others E) compares the Greek and Roman attitudes towards politics and military affairs Answer Keys; 1.C, 2.E, 3.A, 4.B, 5.D, 6.A, 7.E, 8.B, 9.A.